Information for Authors
The Monongalia Historical Society publishes four newsletters (The Monongalia Chronicle) per year which are printed near the first days of the months of March, May, September, and November. Prospective authors should provide manuscripts as early as possible, and at least a month ahead of these dates. Newsletter articles would typically be one to four pages (about 500 to 2000 words) in length and may include photos and illustrations.
Your manuscript (in Word) may have images embedded to show recommended placement. However, all images must be included electronically and individually as described in the "Recommendations for Supplying Images" section below. Each image file (jpg, tif, etc.) needs to be well labeled and provided separate from the manuscript file.
The Society also publishes annual Papers and Proceedings which typically contain two to five articles, and are longer and of a more formal nature than the newsletter items. Published at the first of March, articles should be submitted by January first.
Samples of the above publications are available at the West Virginia University Library as well as at the Aull Center of the Morgantown Public Library.
Authors need not be members of the Society, but topics should be of local or regional interest to the citizens of the greater Monongalia County area, which could include nearby counties in West Virginia as well as southwestern Pennsylvania.
While it is desired to provide publications that are accurate and have a high level of continuity of format and style, it is recognized that new authors may need help in the editing process to prepare the final manuscripts. Society editors can help with this. However, if authors comply as much as possible with the following guidelines it will greatly facilitate the editorial process and aid in timely production of the final copy.
Please do not be overwhelmed by the details in the guidelines; probably only a few of them will apply to your article!
Please consult the following pages for detailed information:
Monongalia Historical Society Style Manual
Recommendations for Supplying Images
Monongalia Historical Society Style Manual
June 17, 2016
Resource: The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, with some additions from 16th edition.
For future publications, with reference to the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition:
Our publications’ titles – all caps
Our newsletter date in heading – all caps
Article or subhead titles – capitalize key words and use same capitalization in table of contents, and subhead titles also end with a period.
Our publications’ author titles – capitalize each word, so Board President, not Board president
Sidebar captions use caps for key words
Names of seasons – not capitalized when used like “the summer mill tours” or “during the winter, the mill has no heat,” but capitalized when used in place of the name of a month in notes, i.e., “Speakers for the spring dinners,” Chronicle Newsletter (Summer 2013).
For lists, like the activities schedule, names of events are not italicized but are bolded. Main words are capitalized.
Names and titles
Titles are to be capitalized as follows: President Ed Hawkins said, “……” BUT titles are NOT capitalized if we say Ed Hawkins, president, said “….”
Richard E. Walters or R. E. Walters (note spacing) but REW if only initials are used.
President Ed Hawkins said . . . , but the president said. . .
The president of the Society, Ed Hawkins, said, “It is hot.”
George Mull, Jr., is the president – note need for commas both before and after Jr.
Spell out titles so West Virginia University Assistant Professor D. J. Pisano, not WVU Asst. Prof. D. J. Pisano.
“by lines” are “by Charles Brown”
“article” and “page” are not needed in the table of contents.
Chicago now allows no periods after degrees so PhD or EdD or MA is okay. Commas are needed after degrees after names, so “Ken Carvell, PhD, is leading the walk.”
Always use photo captions, which must end in a period, and then “by Joe Photographer.” as the by-line. Note the period after Joe’s name. An exception would be if all the photos in an article are by the same person. In that case, the photo credit could be after the first illustration so “All photos by Joe Photographer.”
First use of West Virginia University or any other name to be regularly abbreviated in a newsletter can be West Virginia University (WVU) and then just WVU thereafter.
First use of our organization’s name –Monongalia Historical Society, and then add (MHS) if there will be subsequent references, or use the Society.
Names of states in articles must be spelled out instead of using abbreviations like W.Va. or WV.
All non-English words are italicized unless they are proper names of people.
Names of books, magazines, and newspapers are always italicized.
The first reference to any individual must include the first name. In subsequent references just use the last name.
When citing another’s work, to avoid footnotes, follow this example, as we want to give readers enough information to follow up on their own if interested:
In The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective (1989), Rachel and Stephen Kaplan concluded that…. (although it looks like the In was italicized in the newsletter, and that is not part of the title.
Roger S. Ulrich’s 1984 study in Science, “View through a window may influence recovery from surgery,” examined . . . [note, Science used sentence structure for the title. Always to cite an article exactly as the journal does. For example, in 2006, an article in the Journal of Appalachian Studies was entitled “Practicing Medicine in Mid-Nineteenth Century Wheeling: The Story of Dr. Eliza Clark Hughes,” so we must cite it with the capitalization the journal used.
In his July 5, 2010, column in the New York Times, Anahad O’Connor reported on the results…. Note that the comma after the year is required.
The use of commas can be open to debate. We will use them.
Therefore, there must be commas after introductory phrases if these are longer than a single word or two – so “By mowing in early spring, the native wildflowers…,” not “by mowing in early spring the native wildflowers…” OR “Following past tradition, we had a plant sale” NOT “Following past tradition we had a plant sale.”
Commas are not needed if we only have one introductory word or a very short phrase, so “However it rained” NOT “However, it rained.”
At the other end of sentence, we do not need a comma between a final word or two, so “it rained on Tuesday as well” and not “it rained on Tuesday, as well.”
If we are putting a word in quotes, we use regular quotation marks, not single quotes, so it should be “nearby nature” and not ‘nearby nature.’
Commas are needed after names of states when used with names of cities, so, “The Easton Roller Mill is located near Morgantown, West Virginia, in Monongalia County.”
Commas are needed when we identify where someone is from in a sentence, so “Ed Hawkins, of Morgantown, is president of the Monongalia Historical Society.”
Commas are needed in a series between the penultimate and ultimate words, so “The volunteers planted daisies, hostas, and other perennials.”
Use of hyphens:
A ten-by-twenty-foot room (no space around hyphens)
A hosta- or violet-filled garden (one space after hosta)
Online and not on-line
E-mail and not email
Emerald green, not emerald-green
“We did mill cleanup on Thursday,” but “The mill-cleanup volunteers on Thursday worked hard.”
“It took a half hour to clean the mill,” but “A half-hour cleaning session was productive.”
There is one space after a period, colon, exclamation point, semi-colon, or comma.
There should be 2 spaces after a bullet. This may have be adjusted manually as the default is usually more spaces.
Periods belong inside double quotation marks (“), colons, question marks, and exclamation marks but outside semi-colons and between single quote marks and the final double quote, as in Bill Johnson said, “I heard Ed say ‘the attendance was good last night’.”
Use semi-colons if the words or phrases in a series are complex, so “The volunteers planted purple, white, and green flowers; tree seedlings; and some beautiful annuals.
No quotation marks are used around names of groups so Society members, not “Society members.”
The possessive form of names that end in “s” require an additional “s,” so “Ronald Lewis’s book is required reading.”
Hyphens are not used to describe people, so African American man, not African-American man.
No - - (space, 2 dashes, and another space). Instead, use an en or em dash instead with a space on either side, as needed. En dashes are used for a range of numbers when it is not appropriate to use “to.” Em dashes are sued for pairs as a substitute for parentheses.
Numbers and dates
10 percent, not ten percent and not 10%
Dates are 1990s, not 1990’s unless it really belongs to the year 1990 alone, such as “1990’s winter was particularly harsh.”
Dates are May 11th, not May 11th
“April 5, 2013, is the date for the meeting” – note comma after year – or “events take place in April 2013” or “the April 2013 salamander walk” – no comma after year now
Phone numbers are 304-555-1212, not (304) 555-1212.
Spell out numbers through one hundred, round numbers (like a billion or three hundred), and any number beginning a sentence. However, if using a series of numbers in a paragraph, use numerals, so “We sold 6 t-shirts, 7 polo shirts, 10 notecards, and 5 hats. Then, the next day, we sold 2 tote bags and 5 bird houses.”
Money is $15, not $15.00.
Use 2:00 p.m. for a specific time
Use “From 2:00 to 4:00 p.m.” for a range of time, not “From 2:00-4:00 p.m.”
e.g. and i.e. are not italicized but are followed by a comma.
Always try to avoid the passive voice!
Don’t indent paragraphs but skip a line between paragraphs.
Just use the “return” or “enter” key in creating lists.
Don’t begin sentences with “And.”
Don’t use contractions – except in this document!:-))
Web sites are www.wvbg.org, not http://www.wvbg.org
Bulleted lists are as follows:
- the first item;
- item number two;
- the last item.
Citations for Publications of the Monongalia Historical Society
Prepared by Barb Howe
Source: The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed., rev. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2003. Some of the sources we work with are not included in style guides, so I have created the following citations to be uniform.
Please use endnotes. Word sometimes defaults to Roman numerals. Please do not use Roman numerals but do use superscripts for the numbers. We do not include bibliographies so be sure that all your key sources are included in endnotes, without making the endnotes into articles in themselves.
Even if you access a newspaper, article, or book online, cite it as if you are citing the hard copy.
1. Book: (1st reference):
Paul F. Gillespie, ed., Foxfire 7 (Garden City, N.Y: Anchor Books, 1982), 50.
Please note that you can cite Foxfire like any book – you don’t need articles within a book unless there is a separate author for the chapter you are using. If there is, then you need to cite it like an article in a book.
Jane Smith, Local History is Fun: A Guide to the Sources (Morgantown, W.Va.: West Virginia University Press, 1980), 341.
2. Any source (2nd reference if immediately follows first reference):
Ibid. (if referring to exactly same page)
Ibid., 342. (if referring to same source but not same page)
3. Book (2nd reference to same book after citing another source):
Smith, Women's History is Fun, 375. (use shortened title)
4. Book (2 authors):
Jane Smith and Martha Doe, Why Study History? (Clarksburg, W.Va.: Feminist Press, 1985), 4.
5. Article in Journal or Magazine:
Martha Jones, "I Like British History," British History Quarterly 7 (1980): 43.
Evan Siebold, “A Mother’s Legacy: Quiltmaker Catherine Mann,” Goldenseal 20 (Summer 1994): 26. Note: If you are accessing Goldenseal from the web (www.wvculture.org/goldenseal/index.html), you do not need to include the URL in the citation for the article because this magazine is also available in hard copy.
6. Article in Journal or Magazine (2nd reference after citing another source):
Jones, "I Like British History," 43.
7. Article in Newspaper:
Tammy Wagner, "The Crisis for Victoria's Government," New York Times, July 17, 1873, 7.
NOTE: You only need to cite page numbers for newspaper articles for the New York Times and Times (London), and this should be the edition used for the indexes of these papers. For other papers, the page number for an article could change from edition to edition, so you would have:
Janet Johnson, "Women Face Odds for Jobs," Clarksburg News, July 3, 1980.
8. Article in Newspaper (2nd reference after another source):
Johnson, "Women Face Odds for Jobs."
9. Thesis or Dissertation
Nancy Smith, "Women's Role in the English Work Force in the 1820s" (master's thesis, West Virginia University, 1981), 45.
NOTE: For dissertation, substitute PhD diss. for Master's thesis.
11. Article in book:
Barbara J. Hudson, "The Army's Role in the War," in The Army in War and Peace, ed. by Shelley Rooney (Xenia, Ohio: Central State College Press, 1976), 47.
12. Article in book (2nd reference after citing another source):
Hudson, "The Army's Role in the War," 47.
13. Address or paper delivered at conference or public meeting:
Ruth A. Siferd, "Democracy in Russia in the 1990s" (Paper delivered at the Institute for Soviet Research, Chicago, Ill., August 19, 1991), 20.
Sam Young, interview with author, Morgantown, W.Va., October 5, 1992.
Sammy Younger, interview by Joe Smith, 5 October 1950, tape recording [or transcript], West Virginia and Regional History Collection, West Virginia University, Morgantown, W.Va.
Note: If you are citing a transcription for the interview, please note the page number for your citation so that you have . . . 1950, transcript, p. 5, West . . .
15. Interviews (2nd reference after citing another source):
Sam Young interview, October 5, 1992.
Sammy Younger interview, October 5, 1950, 5.
16. Videotapes or Films:
The Eleanor Roosevelt Story, 1997, distributed by Kino International Corporation, New York.
17. Census material: 1st reference:
U.S. Census Bureau, Census of Population, West Virginia, Taylor County, Court House District, 1920, SD 1, ED 124, 9A. (Note that the amount of information on the exact location of a household varies by census so you just need to get people to the right place so they can easily find the reference.
18. Census material: subsequent references:
U.S. Census Bureau, Taylor County, 1920, SD 1, ED 124, 9A.
19. Unpublished sources:
1st: Susan Z. Smith to John Q. Jones, March 2, 2012, John Q. Jones Collection, West Virginia and Regional History Center, West Virginia University Libraries, Morgantown, W.Va. (hereafter cited as WVRHC).
Subsequent: Smith to Jones, March 2, 2012, Jones Collection.
1st: Susan Z. Smith Diary, February 2, 2014, Suzan Z. Smith Collection, WVRHC (assuming there are prior references to this repository.
Subsequent: Smith Diary, February 2, 2014.
1st: Minutes of the West Virginia University Sierra Club, January 1, 2015, Sierra Club Collection, WHRC.
Subsequent: Minutes of WVU Sierra Club, January 1, 2015.
For citations for Internet resources, use these examples from
Email – first and subsequent references:
Susan Z. Smith, email message to author, March 10, 2016.
“The Rev. Dr. Pauli Murray NHL Nomination: Authors Chosen & First Draft Received,” www.ncwhs.org, accessed March 9, 2016.
“Pauli Murray NHL,” www.ncwhs.org.
Sample material from ancestry.com (which usually tells you how to cite its sources):
West Virginia Death Index, 1853-1973, accessed via ancestry.com, August 8, 2014.
All illustrations must be provided in high-resolution formats (600 dpi suggested) with proper credits and permissions to publish. Authors are required to provide signed copies of the permission forms from the organization providing the illustration. Authors must also provide captions for all illustrations.
Photos “lifted” from West Virginia History On-line are NOT acceptable because the quality is not high enough for publication. Students who have trouble paying fees for photos from the West Virginia and Regional History Center should contact the Society treasurer for assistance with fees at least 6 weeks before the deadline to submit the article.
Sample credit lines include:
Photo courtesy of the author -- if the author took the photo or prepared the illustration.
Credit line required by the organization providing the illustration, i.e., Photo from the West Virginia and Regional History Center, West Virginia University Libraries. (Image reproduction agreement forms for this source can be obtained from the West Virginia and Regional History Center, West Virginia University Libraries, PO Box 6069, Morgantown, WV 26506-6069.)
Recommendations for Supplying Images
Prepared by Rae Jean Sielen
An image for our purposes is a photograph, a line art drawing, a map, or any other item that is not article text. It is either digital or “hard copy” (original, duplicate, or photocopy). The former can come from a scanner, a digital camera, or an image website or database. The latter is simply an original photo, document, or the like, which can be scanned and made digital.
Images downloaded from the Internet
- In the items that follow, mention is made of recording information about photos or other visual matter that you download. If you have many images, a spreadsheet would work well; otherwise, a word-processing file (e.g., MS Word) is fine. Do not skimp on recording information where suggested, since it may prove necessary later in the production process.
- Do not attempt any editing of images unless you have professional image editing skills and expertise. These should be submitted in the same state as when you downloaded them.
- When selecting images to download, seek those with larger dimensions (as stated in “pixels”). Ideally, at least one side should be greater than 1000 pixels. Most browsers allow you to “get info” or “get properties” when you right-click on an image. (Mac users: Control + click). Look for an entry labeled “Size” or “Dimensions” (e.g., “Dimensions: 1080 x 768”).
- Many images on the web have been compressed in size to download faster. Often these images are too blurry or otherwise lacking in quality for use in print.
- Always try to record source information to match each image (e.g., the URL or address where you found it, any author or photographer credits, etc.). Be alert for any claims of ownership or copyright or limitations/prohibitions on reuse.
- If you download an image that is ostensibly offered freely for reuse, record any suggested or required attribution credits. You will often see “license terms” for images you might want to download from Wikipedia and similar sites—and they sometimes provide suggested attribution text verbatim.
- Images obtained from the Internet may have file names that are unintelligible (often just long strings of seemingly random letters and numbers). Do not change such file names, since they may be needed when requesting permission to print (and have published) or to obtain digital or print copies (for publication). In your records, enter the image file name exactly as downloaded and then add a description from which a more meaningful file name can be created later.
Scanned images, to be provided as electronic files
- Your scanner should be adjusted to provide adequate resolution for each scanned image, depending on its type. By resolution, we mean “pixels per inch” or PPI. The more pixels the more visual “information” and the clearer the image will be in print. Try to meet the following PPI values:
- Black and white line art (no shades of gray and no color): 1,200 PPI. Examples include documents of just text, prints from wood cuts, or a pen and ink illustration in just black.
- Photos or other items larger than “wallet” size (3" x 2" or so): 300 PPI
- Any item of wallet size of smaller: 600 PPI, to permit enlarging.
- Any item that may be used for a spread or on a cover: 600 PPI
- If you must reduce a large item (e.g., tabloid size) to fit a smaller page, select the highest quality or PPI setting your scanner supports. Otherwise, the reduction process may reduce clarity.
- Line art should be scanned and saved in black and white. All other items should be scanned in color, even though they will be printed in shades of gray (“grayscale”). The extra color data can be used in obtaining the best conversion for black and white printing.
- Scan all items at their full size. (Exception: items larger than 8.5" by 14" may have to be reduced.)
- When scanning, avoid size adjustments, color correction, color enhancement, or image rotation unless you are skilled in professional image editing. The results cannot be reversed. Necessary adjustments may be made during production.
- Don’t scan framed items through glass. Remove these from the frame, if at all possible.
- Save scanned images in TIFF format with no compression. If TIFF is not supported, save in JPEG format, and adjust image quality to maximum or compression to none (or minimum).
- Electronic image files must be supplied on CD/DVD/”flash” drives
- If you are scanning from a book, it should be held as flat as possible against the scanner glass to minimize shadows and distortion at the spine—but avoid pressing hard enough to damage the binding. (It sometimes helps to lay a dark cloth over the scanner to reduce shadows.)
- Consumer/hobbyist-grade all-in-one scanners (with printer, fax, and copier) do not produce images equal in quality to those from a stand-alone scanner. If you must use an “all-in-one” scanner, set resolution and quality adjustments to their maximums and save the results with no file compression.
Photos from digital cameras, “smart phones”
- These are usually saved in JPEG format. If you have a choice, always select the largest image size and highest quality settings available. If you have a small memory card, take just a few photos, download them to a computer, and then take a few more.
- Do not provide Camera Raw images, since these can require special software to open.
- If your camera supports digital zoom, avoid using it. Rely on the mechanical zoom. If using a smart phone, be aware that images from zooming in closer can result in significantly poorer photo quality, especially when zooming in very close. Also, for best quality, use a tripod and proper flash settings.
- A digital camera photo may claim a resolution of only 72 pixels per inch, yet have very large dimensions (e.g., 30 or more inches on a side). Such images are acceptable for submission “as is.” When prepared for print during the production process, such photos should easily meet the goal of 300 or more pixels per inch
Photos from e-mails and texts:
Digital images that are e-mailed may be automatically downsized by the mail program. Avoid allowing your mail software to downsize photos that will be printed. You may need to change the program preferences to turn off this feature—or you may be able to turn it off for individual messages. If you send such images, look for an option to “send actual size.” When you receive images via e-mail, check their pixel dimensions to make sure they haven’t been reduced.
Photos sent and shared on Facebook or in text messages should be evaluated carefully. Photos downloaded from Facebook, Instagram, etc. may be of very high quality, but this depends on the intent of the user. Many such photos will not be suitable for print.